Manage stakeholders

Manage stakeholders2018-03-27T17:23:17+00:00

Stakeholder management process

Context

Summary

Provide a summary of this practice.

This practice controls the creation and management of the Core Team’s relationship with its stakeholders.

For background on stakeholder management generally, see here.

Purpose

What is the overall goal or intention of this practice?

This practice is used to:

  • Identify the Core Team’s stakeholders.
  • Identify and analyse their expectations regarding the Core Team’s work.
  • Plan and implement actions to manage this relationship.

SLA

What are the schedule, cost, quality, frequency, performance or other expectations for completing this practice?

Frequency: On-going.

Exit conditions

What must have happened or been delivered for this practice to be considered complete?

  • Manage Stakeholders is complete only when the Product is no longer current.

Entry conditions

What pre-conditions must be met before this practice is used?

  • Stakeholder management is not required if:
    • There are few stakeholders.
    • The Product is mature.
    • There have been no recent changes that are likely to impact the selection or interests of stakeholders.
    • Both Core Team and Extended Team are well established.
  • If none of the above is true, you should consider applying this practice.

Outline process

This view shows a simplified version of this process. For full details, explanation and advice, click on the ‘Detailed process’ tab. For background such as entry and exit conditions, click on the ‘Context’ tab.

#StepInstructions
1Identify stakeholders.Review the following to identify potential new and changed stakeholders:

  1. Context Diagram and other organisation charts.
  2. Changes to applicable policies, standards and procedures.
  3. New and updated stories.
2Analyse stakeholders.
  1. Identify your stakeholders’ individual attitudes toward your work.
  2. Decide where on this scale you need them to be for your work to succeed.
  3. Identify the activities needed to migrate your stakeholders from their current to the desired attitude and relationship.
  4. Plan these activities.
3Plan stakeholder management.
  1. Identify your stakeholders’ individual attitudes toward your work.
  2. Decide where on this scale you need them to be for your work to succeed.
  3. Identify the activities needed to migrate your stakeholders from their current to the desired attitude and relationship.
  4. Plan these activities.
4Implement plan.
  1. Set up initial stakeholder meeting.
  2. Diarise stakeholder events.
  3. Schedule stakeholders into communications & event cycles.
  4. Brief the Core Team.
  5. Track and manage progress & outcomes regularly.
  6. Communicate results.
  7. Review and adapt as appropriate.
 5Maintain relationship.
  1. The Stakeholder Management Plan should be reviewed whenever:
    • The overall Product changes.
    • A Release or Iteration begins or ends.
    • As part of Backlog Refinement.
  2. Review and survey stakeholder satisfaction.
  3. Review with:
    • Product Owner.
    • Core Team.
    • Affected members of the Extended Team.
  4. Update Stakeholder Management Plan and re-implement as appropriate.

Detailed process

#StepLed byInvolvingOutputInstructionsNotes
1Identify stakeholders.Product OwnerIteration LeadDraft stakeholder listReview the following to identify potential new and changed stakeholders:

  1. Context Diagram and other organisation charts.
  2. Changes to applicable policies, standards and procedures.
  3. New and updated stories.
  • Stakeholders should have at least one of the following characteristics:
    • They play an active role in your project.
    • Your project will change some aspect of their roles and responsibilities.
    • They can potentially influence the success – or failure – of your project.
  • For a more detailed breakdown, see here.
2Analyse stakeholders.Product OwnerIteration LeadDraft Stakeholder Management Plan
  1. Group stakeholders by their dominant focus.
  2. Identify what each stakeholder expects.
  3. Understand the complexity of each stakeholder’s expectations.
  4. Assess how much they are affected by your project – and how much they can affect it.
  5. Analyse your relationship to the key stakeholders.
  6. Plan how to manage that relationship.
  • For a more detailed breakdown of each of these tasks, see here.
  • Note that some stakeholders may have more than one focus. Begin by grouping them by their initial focus, but make sure that the full range of their interests are reflected in your stakeholder management plan.
  • Remember that you will also need to bear in mind your stakeholders’ shared expectations.
3Plan stakeholder management.Iteration LeadProduct OwnerStakeholder Management Plan
  1. Identify your stakeholders’ individual attitudes toward your work.
  2. Decide where on this scale you need them to be for your work to succeed.
  3. Identify the activities needed to migrate your stakeholders from their current to the desired attitude and relationship.
  4. Plan these activities.
  • Although the Core Team should be sheltered from interference from outside the team, involving them in managing stakeholder relationships can be an invaluable method for developing their skills and awareness.
4Implement plan.Iteration LeadProduct Owner
  1. Set up initial stakeholder meeting.
  2. Diarise stakeholder events.
  3. Schedule stakeholders into communications & event cycles.
  4. Brief the Core Team.
  5. Track and manage progress & outcomes regularly.
  6. Communicate results.
  7. Review and adapt as appropriate.
For further details of each step, see here.
 5Maintain relationship.Iteration LeadProduct OwnerStakeholder satisfaction surveys
  1. The Stakeholder Management Plan should be reviewed whenever:
    • The overall Product changes.
    • A Release or Iteration begins or ends.
    • As part of Backlog Refinement.
  2. Review and survey stakeholder satisfaction.
  3. Review with:
    • Product Owner.
    • Core Team.
    • Affected members of the Extended Team.
  4. Update Stakeholder Management Plan and re-implement as appropriate.
  • A basic agenda for regularly reviewing your stakeholder relationships should include:
    • Do both sides have the right level of overall awareness, commitment, involvement?
    • Are we achieving success or failure?
    • How are stakeholder concerns, expectations and constraints evolving?
    • In summary, what is the impact of your work on them so far?
    • Are reporting & communications still appropriate?
    • Is stakeholder management itself working to their satisfaction?
  • For details, see here.
  • Sensitivity to your stakeholders’ attitudes should be a normal part of every activity. Set-piece reviews should serve only to summarise and consolidate, not for the initial discovery of changes.

Issues & risks

What are the key concerns in making a success of this practice?

  1. Many aspects of your stakeholders attitude towards your work will change without any outward differences – they will only become clear when too late to address. So active stakeholder management, including regular reviews of changes, are essential.
  2. A more detailed list of Critical Success Factors is also available.
  3. Because they are not involved directly in the Core Team’s work, stakeholders are subject to a variety of influences that may distort their approach to and awareness of your work. These include:
BiasEffectTo manage this you should…
Endowment effectPeople attach a higher value to things they already possess.Be sure of positively proving the superior value you are offering.
Confirmation biasPeople will search for or interpret information confirming their preconceptions.Understand and manage audience/ stakeholder biases and pre-conceptions.
Bandwagon effectDoing things because others do them.Show or create social approval/permission for desired outcomes from influential stakeholders.
Framing effectsPresentation method affects conclusions.Differentiate audiences and adapt your communications to their priorities and concerns.
Consensus assumptionWe assume other people see things like us.Identify relevant differences explicitly. Only attempt to reconcile multiple perspectives around a consensus at a higher level (e.g., Product or Release).

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